The Singapore Medical Journal (SMJ) is the monthly publication of Singapore Medical Association (SMA). The Journal aims to advance medical practice and clinical research by publishing high-quality articles that add to the clinical knowledge of physicians in Singapore and worldwide.

SMJ is a general medical journal that focuses on all aspects of human health. The Journal publishes commissioned reviews, commentaries and editorials, original research, a small number of outstanding case reports, continuing medical education articles (ECG Series, Clinics in Diagnostic Imaging, Pictorial Essays, Practice Integration & Life-long Learning [PILL] Series), and short communications in the form of letters to the editor.

SMJ follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (

ISSN (Print): 0037-5675
(Online): 2737-5935 
DOI: 10.11622/smedj

Impact Factor® as reported in the 2021 Journal Citation Reports®: 3.331

Indexed in: MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, WPRIM, Web of Science, EBSCOhost
Member of: APAME, SAMJE, MASEAN GOJ, CrossRef



Editor-in-Chief: A/Prof Poh Kian Keong

Deputy Editors: Prof Ang Tiing Leong, A/Prof Mahesh Choolani 

Advisors: Prof Wilfred CG Peh, Prof Teo Eng Kiong

Specialty Editors:

Dr Chan Yiong Huak
Dr Chia Pow-Li
Dr Chen Ching Kit
Dr Chng Soke Miang
Prof Roger Foo
A/Prof George Goh Boon Bee
Dr Goh Lay Hoon
Dr Andrew Fu-Wah Ho
Dr How Choon How
Prof Hsu Pon Poh
Dr Shirin Kalimuddin
Dr Devendra Kanagalingam
Dr William KF Kong
Dr Dave Lee Yee Han
Dr Katy Leung Ying Ying
A/Prof Kevin Lim Boon Leong
Dr Joshua PY Loh
Dr Troy Puar Hai Kiat
Dr Pwee Keng Ho
Prof Quak Seng Hock
Dr N V Ramani
Dr See Kay Choong
Adj A/Prof Sim Kang
Asst Prof Addy Tan Yong Hui
Dr Benedict Tan Chi Loong
Dr Benjamin Y Q Tan
Prof Kelvin Tan Kok Hian
Adj Asst Prof Tan Li Hoon
Prof Tan Puay Hoon
A/Prof Tan Su-Ming
A/Prof Tan Tong Khee
Dr Darren Tay Keng Jin
A/Prof Samuel Tay
A/Prof Cuthbert Teo
Adj A/Prof Toh Song Tar
Dr Shawn Vasoo
Prof Wong Wai Keong

Editor, Social Media: Dr Ng Chew Lip

International Corresponding Editors

Prof Jafri Malin Abdullah (Malaysia)
A/Prof Judy Wei-Ming Hung (USA)
Prof Jose Florencio Lapena Jr (Philippines)
Prof Ng Kwan-Hoong (Malaysia)
Prof Tan Siang Yong (USA)


President, SMA: Dr Tan Yia Swam
Honorary General Secretary, SMA: Dr Ng Chew Lip


Dr Gwee Ah Leng (1960-1971)
Dr Tan Kheng Khoo (1971-1975)
Prof Lim Pin (1975-1978)
Prof Feng Pao Hsii (1978-1987)
Prof Chee Yam Cheng (1988-1995)
Prof Tan Choon Kim (1995-1996)
Prof Kua Ee Heok (1996-1999)
Prof C Rajasoorya (2000-2003)
Prof WIlfred CG Peh (2004-2009)
Prof Teo Eng Kiong (2010-2013)


The Editorial Office can be contacted at:

The Editor
Singapore Medical Journal
Singapore Medical Association
2985 Jalan Bukit Merah
#02-2C, SMF Building
Singapore 159457
Tel: (65) 6223 1264
Fax: (65) 6252 9693

For Subscription and Advertising enquiries:

Li Li Loy
Tel: (65) 6223 1264

Disclaimer: The statements and opinions expressed in the SMJ reflect the views of the authors, and do not necessarily represent those of the SMJ editorial board or the Singapore Medical Association (SMA), unless this is clearly specified. SMA does not, and cannot, accept responsibility for the veracity, accuracy or completeness of any statement, opinion or advice contained in the text or advertisements published in the SMJ. Advertisements of products and services that appear in the SMJ do not imply endorsement for the products and services by SMA.

All articles published in the Singapore Medical Journal (SMJ) are protected by copyright. No material in this journal may be reproduced on any platform including electronic or in print, or transmitted by any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of the Editor of the SMJ.
Written permission must also be obtained before any part of the SMJ is stored in any retrieval system of any nature.