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Tan F, Mukherjee JJ, Lee KO, Lim P, Liew CF
Correspondence: Dr Florence Tan, email@example.com
Introduction Blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by either the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) has been shown to reduce albuminuria and delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy. This study evaluated the effect of dual blockade of the RAAS by adding an ACEI or an ARB to the administration of either drug alone on albuminuria in Asian type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.
Methods 34 patients were randomly assigned to receive either enalapril 20 mg or losartan 100 mg once daily for eight weeks. Following this, all patients received a combination of enalapril 10 mg and losartan 50 mg daily for eight weeks, followed by enalapril 20 mg and losartan 100 mg daily for another eight weeks. The blood pressure and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were monitored.
Results Following monotherapy with enalapril, there was a mean and standard error (SE) reduction in the UAE and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 9.8 (SE 6.8) percent (p-value is 0.061) and 5.3 (SE 2.2) mmHg (p-value is 0.026), respectively; the reduction in UAE and MAP following monotherapy with losartan was by 10.9 (SE 14.1) percent (p-value is 0.053) and 4.5 (SE 1.9) mmHg (p-value is 0.034), respectively. Combination therapy with enalapril and losartan further reduced the UAE (11.2 [SE 8.7] percent, p-value is 0.009] despite there being no significant change in the MAP (-1.2 [SE 1.47] mmHg, p-value is 0.42). The adverse effects included dry cough (seven [19.4 percent] patients, resulting in the withdrawal of medication in two patients), and transient hyperkalaemia (two [six percent] patients).
Conclusion Dual blockade of the RAAS is safe and effective in reducing albuminuria in Asian type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.
Keywords: ACE inhibitor, albuminuria, angiotensin receptor blocker, diabetic nephropathy, renin-angiotensin system
Singapore Med J 2010; 51(2): 151-156