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R Kam, J Cutter, SK Chew, A Tan, S Emmanuel, KH Mak, CNS Chan, TH Koh, YL Lim
Correspondence: Dr Ruth Kam, Ruth_KAM@nhc.com.sg
Objectives To characterise gender and age-related differences in presentation and outcome after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Design Data were derived retrospectively from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry from 1988 through 1997. This database comprised all AMI cases for ages between 20 and 64 years (group A). For approximately three months a year, data were also collected for all AMI cases above the age of 64 years (group B). There were 13,048 and 4,425 cases in groups A and B respectively.
Results In age - standardised AMI rates, males outnumbered females by a factor of 4.0 and 1.7 for groups A and B respectively.The median age of presentation was higher in females for both age groups being 58 years versus 54 years for group A and 75 years versus 72 years for group B. Younger females had worse survival at 28 days and were more likely to have prior ischaemic heart disease and require resuscitation. They were also more likely to have atypical symptoms. Previous myocardial infarction was not different between the sexes in both groups. Among the older age group, there was no gender difference in prior ischaemic heart disease, 28-day survival and requirement for resuscitation.
Conclusion Women who have AMI tend to be older than men. Gender differences are age-specific. Women who are 64 years and below have more atypical symptoms, prior ischaemic heart disease and worse prognosis than men after AMI. These differences are not seen in those over the age of 64.
Keywords: myocardial infarction, females, survival, symptoms, age
Singapore Med J 2002; 43(5): 243-248