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Shukla VK, Chauhan VS, Mishra RN, Basu S
Correspondence: Prof Vijay K Shukla, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction Lifestyle and dietary habits play an important role in carcinogenesis. Carcinoma of the gallbladder is no different. The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of lifestyle, menstrual and reproductive factors in gallbladder cancer.
Methods A prospective case-control study involving 78 newly-diagnosed cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 78 age- and gender-matched controls with cholelithiasis were investigated for their lifestyle history, with an emphasis on habits with chewing betel nut and tobacco, alcohol consumption and smoking. Besides this, female patients were investigated for their menstrual and reproductive factors. Odds-ratio and significance were calculated.
Results A Hindu preponderance was seen. About half of the patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder and gallstone were either illiterate or had a very low level of education (primary or below). Religion, education, family income, chewing of tobacco as well as smoking were comparable. But numbers of chewing tobacco and smoking per day differed significantly. Alcohol was consumed by 11.6 percent of carcinoma and 4.1 percent of gallstone patients. Lower age of menarche, higher number of pregnancies and higher age at menopause had a significantly increased risk of gallbladder carcinogenesis. A significant difference in carcinogenesis was seen in the postmenopausal women compared with the menopausal group.
Conclusion Carcinoma of the gallbladder was common in tobacco chewers. Females with lower age at menarche, higher number of pregnancies and childbirths and higher age at last childbirth had an increased risk of gallbladder cancer.
Keywords: biliary tract cancer, carcinogenesis, gallbladder carcinoma, lifestyle, reproductive factors
Singapore Med J 2008; 49(11): 912-915