Share this Article
How CH, Quah JH
Correspondence: Dr How Choon How, firstname.lastname@example.org
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. There are many types of incontinence and different management options available, ranging from lifestyle modifications, medication to surgical intervention. Untreated urinary incontinence can result in a myriad of problems, including skin irritations, infections, social phobia, major depression and premature institutionalisation of elderly family members. Common barriers to optimal management include the socially embarrassing nature of the condition, which impedes open discussion, as well as the misperceptions that management must be invasive and the condition cannot be adequately managed within the community. We discuss the common types of incontinence encountered in the community and their management in the primary care setting.
Singapore Med J 2013; 54(8): 420-424; http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2013165
|1. Cardone A, Tolino A, Iervolino P. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria in gynecologic pathology not connected with pregnancy]. Minerva Ginecol 1977; 29:551-6. Italian.|
|2. Chan KM, Pang WS, Ee CH, Ding YY, Choo P. Functional status of the elderly in Singapore. Singapore Med J 1999; 40:635-8.|
|3. Swithinbank LV, Donovan JL, du Heaume JC, et al. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in women: relationships between occurrence, age, and perceived impact. Br Gen Pract 1999; 49:897-900.|
|4. Resnick NM. Urinary incontinence. Lancet 1995; 346:94-9.
|5. Weiss BD. Diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence in geriatric patients. Am Fam Physician 1998; 57:2675-84, 2688-90.|
|6. Burgio KL, Engel BT. Biofeedback-assisted behavioural training for elderly men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990; 38:338-40.|
|7. Nijman RJ. Role of antimuscarinics in the treatment of nonneurogenic daytime urinary incontinence in children. Urology 2004; 63 (3 suppl 1):45-50.
|1. Society for Continence (Singapore). Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Urinary Incontinence. Singapore: Society for Continence, 2008.|
|2. Ng LG, Lee LS, eds. An Approach to Common Urological Conditions – a Guide for Family Physicians. Singapore: Regent Publishing. In press.|