Share this Article
Hossain MG, Saw A, Alam R, Ohtsuki F, Kamarul T
Correspondence: Dr Saw Aik, firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION Cephalic index (CI), the ratio of head breadth to head length, is widely used to categorise human populations. The aim of this study was to access the impact of anthropometric measurements on the CI of male Japanese university students.
METHODS This study included 1,215 male university students from Tokyo and Kyoto, selected using convenient sampling. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of anthropometric measurements on CI.
RESULTS The variance inflation factor (VIF) showed no evidence of a multicollinearity problem among independent variables. The coefficients of the regression line demonstrated a significant positive relationship between CI and minimum frontal breadth (p < 0.01), bizygomatic breadth (p < 0.01) and head height (p < 0.05), and a negative relationship between CI and morphological facial height (p < 0.01) and head circumference (p < 0.01). Moreover, the coefficient and odds ratio of logistic regression analysis showed a greater likelihood for minimum frontal breadth (p < 0.01) and bizygomatic breadth (p < 0.01) to predict round-headedness, and morphological facial height (p < 0.05) and head circumference (p < 0.01) to predict long-headedness. Stepwise regression analysis revealed bizygomatic breadth, head circumference, minimum frontal breadth, head height and morphological facial height to be the best predictor craniofacial measurements with respect to CI.
CONCLUSION The results suggest that most of the variables considered in this study appear to influence the CI of adult male Japanese students.
Keywords: anthropometric measurements, cephalic index, logistic regression, multiple regression, university students
Singapore Med J 2013; 54(9): 516-520; http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2013175
|1. Carol RE, Melvin RE, Peter NP. Physical Anthropology and Archaeology. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006.|
|2. Gray DL, Songster GS, Parvin CA, Crane JP. Cephalic index: a gestational age-dependent biometric parameter. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 74:600-3.|
|3. Koizumi T, Komuro Y, Hashizume K, Yanai A. Cephalic index of Japanese children with normal brain development. J Craniofac Surg 2010; 21:1434-7.
|4. Asha KR, Lakshmiprabha S, Nanjaiah CM, Prashanth SN. Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in Down syndrome. Indian J Pediatr 2011; 78:1091-5.
|5. Weidenreich F. The brachycephalization of recent mankind. SW J Anthropol 1945; 1:1-54.|
|6. Abbie AA. Head form and human evolution. J Anat 1947; 81(pt 3):233-58.|
|7. Baer MJ. Dimensional changes in the human head and face in the third decade of life. Am J Phys Anthropol 1956; 14:557-75.
|8. Roche AF, Seward FS, Sunderland S. Growth changes in the Mongoloid head. Acta Paediatr 1961; 50:133-40.
|9. Bielicki T, Welon Z. The operation of natural selection on human head form in an East European population. Homo 1964; 15:22-30.|
|10. Huizinga J, Slob A. Progressive brachycephalization: reproduction and headform in the Netherlands. A preliminary report. Proc K Ned Akad Wet C 1965; 68:297-301.|
|11. Jorgensen JB, Drenhaus U, Skrobak-Kaczynski J. [Changes in the physical characteristics of Greenland eskimos from the northern district of Upernarvik]. Anthropo Anz 1974; 34:89-101. German.|
|12. Skrobak-Kaczynski J, Jorgensen JB, Drenhaus U. Secular changes in the Eskimos of the northern district of Upernavik. J Hum Evol 1977; 6:217-20.
|13. Bharati S, Som S, Bharati P, Vasulu TS. Climate and head form in India. AmJ Hum Biol 2001; 13:626-34.
|14. Golalipour MJ. The effect of ethnic factor on cephalic index in 17-20 years old females of North of Iran. Int J Morphol 2006; 24:319-22.
|15. Suzuki H. Changes in the skull features of the Japanese people from ancient to modern times. In Men and Cultures. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1956: 717-24.|
|16. Suzuki H. [Secular changes of the physical characteristics of the Japanese people from the prehistoric to modern times]. Kaibogaku Zasshi 1967; 42:13-5. Japanese.|
|17. Suzuki H. Microevolutional changes in the Japanese population from the prehistoric age to present-day. J Fac Sci Univ 1969; 3:279-309.|
|18. Morita S, Ohtsuki F. Secular changes of the main head dimensions in Japanese. Hum Biol 1973; 45:151-65.|
|19. Yanagisawa S, Kondo S. Modernization of physical features of the Japanese with special reference to leg length and head form. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo) 1973; 2:97-108.|
|20. Ohtsuki F, Ito K. Secular changes in head dimensions among Japanese females. Presented at XI International Congress of Anatomy, August 17-23, 1980; Mexico city, Mexico.|
|21. Kouchi M. Geographic variation in modern Japanese somatometric data: A secular change hypothesis. Univ Mus Univ Tokyo Bull 1986; 27:93-106.|
|22. Kondo S, Wakatsuki E, Shibagaki H A Somatometric study of the head and face in Japanese adolescents. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 1999; 76:179-85.|
|23. Hossain MD, Lestrel PE, Ohtsuki F. Secular changes in head dimensions of Japanese females over eight decades. Anthropol Sci 2004; 112:213-18.
|24. Hossain MD, Lestrel PE, Ohtsuki F. Secular changes in head dimensions of Japanese adult male students over eight decades. Homo 2005; 55:239-50.
|25. Kouchi M. Brachycephalization in Japan has ceased. Am J Phys Anthropol 2000; 112: 339-47.
|26. Hossain MG, Saw A, Ohtsuki F, Lestrel PE, Kamarul T. Change in facial shape in two cohorts of Japanese adult female students twenty years apart. Singapore Med J 2011; 52:818-23.|
|27. Martin R, Saller K. Lehrbuch der Anthroplogie in systematischer Darstellung. Bd 1. Stuttgart: Fischer, 1957. German.|
|28. Chatterjee S, Hadi AS. Regression analysis by example. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
|29. Ohtsuki F, Iwamura E. Geographical differences in head and face dimensions among Japanese females. Am J Phys Anthropol 1980; 52:264.|
|30. Nakashima T. Brachycephalization in the head form of school girls in North Kyushu. J UOEH 1986; 8:411-4.|
|31. Ivanovsky A. Physical modifications of the population of Russia under famine. Am J Phys Anthropol 1923; 6:331-53.
|32. Suzuki H. On the thickness of soft tissues of the head. Anthropol Sci Nippon 1948; 60:7-11.
|33. Beals KL, Smith CL, Dodd SM. Climate and the evolution of brachycephalization. Am J Phys Anthropol 1983; 62: 425-37.
|34. Miller PS. Secular changes among the Western Apache. Am J Phys Anthropol 1970; 33:197-206.
|35. Crognier E. Climate and anthropological variations in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Ann Hum Biol 1981; 8:99-107.
|36. Billy G. Anthropometric evidence of exogamy related to secular changes in presentday populations. J Hum Evol 1975; 4:517-20.
|37. Schwidetzky I. [Endogamy and anthropological differentiation in the Canary Islands. (Anthropological studies in the Canary Islands 3)]. Z Morphol Anthropol 1973; 65:1-13. German.|
|38. Pälsson J, Schwidetzky I. [The variability of anthropological characteristics in Iceland after endogamy/exogamy, ages and social groups]. HOMO 1973; 24:23-34. German.|
|39. Miki Z. Social stratification and the brachycraniazation process in the Medieval period. The Stecci population of Yugoslavia. Homo 1990; 41:136-45.|
|40. Lasker GW. Migration and physical differentiation. Am J Phys Anthropol 1946; 4:273-300.
|41. Henneberg M. The influence of natural selection on brachycephalization in Poland. Stu Phys Anthropol 1976; 2:3-19.|