Share this Article
Correspondence: Dr Amir H Pakpour, Pakpour_Amir@yahoo.com
Introduction The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Short Form 15 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™ 4.0 SF15) in a sample of Iranian schoolchildren and children with chronic health conditions.
Methods A total of 1236 schoolchildren and 1183 parents of schoolchildren participated, and 52 children with chronic health conditions and their parents were recruited from an outpatient clinic. Feasibility, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, known-groups discriminant validity and construct validity of the PedsQL™ 4.0 SF15 were determined.
Results The Iranian version of PedsQL™ 4.0 SF15 evidenced minimal missing responses for child self-report and parent proxy-report (0.4% and 0.6%, respectively), generally demonstrated no significant floor or ceiling effects, and achieved acceptable internal consistency reliability for the Total Scale Score (α = 0.82 child self-report, 0.84 parent proxy-report) and acceptable test-retest reliability. Schoolchildren and their parents reported significantly higher PedsQL™ 4.0 SF15 scores than paediatric patients with chronic health conditions. Child self-report and parent proxy-report showed poor to good agreement. A four-factor model was confirmed among child self-report and parent proxy-report in the confirmatory factor analyses.
Conclusion This study supports the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 SF15 among Iranian children and their parents.
Keywords: children, health-related quality of life, Iran, PedsQL™, short form
Singapore Med J 2013; 54(6): 309-314; http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2013123
|1. Amiri P, Ardekani E, Jalali-Farahani S, et al. Reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in adolescents. Qual Life Res 2010; 19:1501-8.
|2. Jafari P, Ghanizadeh A, Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR. Healthrelated quality of life of Iranian children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Qual Life Res 2011; 20:31-6.
|3. World Health Organization. Measuring Quality of Life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997.|
|4. Higginson IJ, Carr AJ. Measuring quality of life: Using quality of life measures in the clinical setting. BMJ 2001; 322:1297-300.
|5. Matza LS, Swensen AR, Flood EM, Secnik K, Leidy NK. Assessment of health-related quality of life in children: a review of conceptual, methodological, and regulatory issues. Value Health 2004; 7:79-92.
|6. Solans M, Pane S, Estrada MD, et al. Health-related quality of life measurement in children and adolescents: a systematic review of generic and disease-specific instruments. Value Health 2008; 11:742-64.
|7. Varni JW, Limbers CA. The pediatric quality of life inventory: measuring pediatric health-related quality of life from the perspective of children and their parents. Pediatr Clin North Am 2009; 56:843-63.
|8. Fayers P, Machin D. Quality of Life: Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.|
|9. Varni JW, Seid M, Rode CA. The PedsQL: measurement model for the pediatric quality of life inventory. Med Care 1999; 37:126-39.
|10. Varni JW, Seid M, Smith Knight T, et al. The PedsQL in pediatric rheumatology: reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales and Rheumatology Module. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46:714-25.
|11. Iannaccone ST, Hynan LS, Morton A, et al. The PedsQL in pediatric patients with spinal muscular atrophy: feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales and Neuromuscular Module. Neuromuscul Disord 2009; 19:805-12.
|12. Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Rapoff MA, Kamps JL, Olson N. The PedsQL in pediatric asthma: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory generic core scales and asthma module. J Behav Med 2004; 27:297-318.
|13. Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Katz ER, Meeske K, Dickinson P. The PedsQL in pediatric cancer: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales, Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and Cancer Module. Cancer 2002; 94:2090-106.
|14. Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Jacobs JR, et al. The PedsQL in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales and type 1 Diabetes Module. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:631-7.
|15. Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Berrin SJ, et al. The PedsQL in pediatric cerebral palsy: reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Generic Core Scales and Cerebral Palsy Module. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48:442-9.
|16. Varni JW, Seid M, Kurtin PS. PedsQL 4.0: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 generic core scales in healthy and patient populations. Med Care 2001; 39:800-12.
|17. Gkoltsiou K, Dimitrakaki C, Tzavara C, et al. Measuring health-related quality of life in Greek children: psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory(TM) 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Qual Life Res 2008; 17:299-305.
|18. Kook SH, Varni JW. Validation of the Korean version of the pediatric quality of life inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) generic core scales in school children and adolescents using the Rasch model. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2008; 6:41.
|19. Uneri OS, Agaoglu B, Coskun A, Memik NC. Validity and reliability of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for 2- to 4-year-old and 5- to 7-year-old Turkish children. Qual Life Res 2008; 17:307-15.
|20. Chan KS, Mangione-Smith R, Burwinkle TM, Rosen M, Varni JW. The PedsQL: reliability and validity of the short-form generic core scales and Asthma Module. Med Care 2005; 43:256-65.
|21.Chen X, Origasa H, Ichida F, Kamibeppu K, Varni JW. Reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Short Form 15 Generic Core Scales in Japan. Qual Life Res 2007; 16:1239-49.
|22. Petersen S, Hägglöf B, Stenlund H, Bergström E. Psychometric properties of the Swedish PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 generic core scales. Acta Paediatr 2009; 98:1504-12.
|23. Varni JW. PedsQL™ translation methodology [online]. 1998 Available at: http://www.pedsql.org. Accessed May 20, 2013.|
|24. McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Lu JF, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item ShortForm Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Med Care 1994; 32:40-66.
|25. McHorney CA, Tarlov AR. Individual-patient monitoring in clinical practice: are available health status surveys adequate? Qual Life Res 1995; 4:293-307.
|26. Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.|
|27. Bartko JJ. The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychol Rep 1966; 19:3-11.
|28. McGraw KO, Wong SP. Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychol Methods 1996; 1:30-46.
|29. Marsh HW, Hau K, Wen Z. In search of golden rules: comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cut-off values for fit indexes and dangers in over generalizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling 2004; 11:320-41.
|30. Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.|
|31. Hu L, Bentler PM. Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6:1-55.
|32. Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociol Methods Res 1992; 21:230-58.
|33. Sivo SA, Fan X, Witta EL, Willse JT. The search for "optimal" cutoff properties: fit index criteria in structural equation modeling. J Exp Educ 2006; 74:267-88.
|34. Enders CK, Bandalos DL. The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Struct Equ Modeling 2001; 8:430-57.
|35. Michel G, Bisegger C, Fuhr DC, Abel T, KIDSCREEN Group. Age and gender differences in health-related quality of life of children and adolescents in Europe: a multilevel analysis. Qual Life Res 2009; 18:1147-57.
|36. Simeoni MC, Auquier P, Antoniotti S, Sapin C, San Marco JL. Validation of a French health-related quality of life instrument for adolescents: the VSP-A. Qual Life Res 2000; 9:393-403.
|37. Limbers CA, Newman DA, Varni JW. Factorial invariance of child selfreport across age subgroups: a confirmatory factor analysis of ages 5 to 16 years utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Value Health 2008; 11:659-68.
|38. Mortazavi SH, Karimi E. Cultural Dimensions of Paternalistic Behavior – A Cross-Cultural Research in Five Countries. In: Iwawaki S, Kashima Y, Leung K, eds. Innovations in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Amsterdam: Garland Science, 1992: 147-51.|
|39. Tamadonfar M. Islam, law, and political control in contemporary Iran. J Sci Study Relig 2001; 40:205-20.