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Loi K, Khoo CK, Tan KH, Yeo GSH, Kwek K
Correspondence: Dr Kenneth Kwek, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction This study aims to assess the epidemiology of severe preeclampsia in Singapore, the disease characteristics, maternal and perinatal outcome, and to identify risk factors for complications.
Methods Data of 93 consecutive women with severe preeclampsia in KK Women's and Children's Hospital in Singapore was collected prospectively and analysed using the unpaired t-test for normally-distributed continuous variables and Fisher's exact chi-square test for discrete variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for prediction of complicated cases.
Results The incidence of severe pre-eclampsia was 29.3 per 10,000 deliveries, with an increased risk in women who were aged more than 35 years and who were nulliparous. The risk was also increased in women of the Malay race and they also had the tendency to book later, compared with the other races. 43 percent of women had maternal complications, including eclampsia, haemolysis/elevated liver enzymes/low platelets syndrome, oliguria, pulmonary oedema and placental abruption. Significantly raised levels of uric acid (439.5 +/- 114.1 micromol/L versus 395.4 +/- 96.7 micromol/L, p-value equals 0.047) and aspartate transaminase (80.1 +/- 107.4 IU/L versus 38.8 +/- 16.1 IU/L, p-value equals 0.021) were found in those with complications, compared to those without complications. The average gestation at time of diagnosis was 33 weeks and the average gestation at delivery was 34 weeks. 89.3 percent of women required caesarean section and 59.1 percent of women were admitted to intensive care.
Conclusion Age, parity and race are risk factors for severe preeclampsia with increased levels of uric acid and aspartate transaminase found in the complicated cases. The morbidity and cost of treatment of severe preeclampsia are high with a large percentage requiring caesarean section and intensive care admission.
Keywords: maternal morbidity, perinatal outcome, preeclampsia, pregnancy complications, severe preeclampsia
Singapore Med J 2007; 48(9): 808–812