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Kannan TP, Azman BZ, Ahmad Tarmizi AB, Suhaida MA, Siti Mariam I, Ravindran A, Zilfalil BA
Correspondence: Dr Kannan Thirumulu P, email@example.com
Introduction Turner syndrome affects about one in 2,000 live-born females, and the wide range of somatic features indicates that a number of different X-located genes are responsible for the complete phenotype. This retrospective study highlights the Turner syndrome cases confirmed through cytogenetic analysis at the Human Genome Centre of Universiti Sains Malaysia, from 2001 to 2006.
Methods Lymphocyte cultures were set up using peripheral blood samples, chromosomes were prepared, G-banded, karyotyped and analysed in accordance to guidelines from the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature.
Results The various karyotype patterns observed were 45,X; 46,X,i, (Xq); 45,X/45,X,+mar; 45,X/46,X,i,(Xq) and 45,X/46,XY. The mean age of our patients with Turner syndrome was 21 years, and the most common clinical features encountered in all these patients were short stature (100 percent), primary amenorrhoea (85.7 percent), absence of secondary sexual characteristics (57.1 percent), scanty pubic and axillary hair (50 percent), webbed neck (42.9 percent), wide carrying angle (42.9 percent), rudimentary uterus with bilateral streak ovaries (42.9 percent), underdeveloped breasts (35.7 percent) and wide-spaced nipples (21.4 percent).
Conclusion Even though there is no causal therapy for Turner syndrome, management and treatment are possible for malformations and conditions associated with it. In addition, counselling of the parents and of the patients themselves are necessary. Hence, establishing an early diagnosis, educating and increasing awareness among doctors, and if possible, a prenatal diagnosis, will help in early intervention, genetic counselling and in improving the quality of life in these patients.
Keywords: cytogenetic analysis, genetic counselling, gonadal dysgenesis, short stature, Turner syndrome
Singapore Med J 2008; 49(5):400-404