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Correspondence: Dr Giin-Cherng Chan, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction A study was conducted at primary healthcare level in the Melaka Tengah district of Malaysia to determine whether hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were managed according to guidelines.
Methods A cross-sectional study involving 517 patients with diabetes mellitus from August to October 2003 was performed.
Results All the subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. 350 (67.7 percent) patients had hypertension and about 25.7 percent of them were associated with microalbuminuria. The Malay ethnic group form the majority (54.6 percent), followed by Chinese (37.7 percent) and Indian (7.4 percent). Only 11 (3.1 percent) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension achieved the target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mmHg. For those who had not achieved the target goal, 39.5 percent of them were not on any antihypertensive drugs. 38.6 percent were on monotherapy and only 21.8 percent were on two or more antihypertensive drugs. Metoprolol was the most commonly used antihypertensive drug (22.4 percent), followed by Nifedipine (16.2 percent) and Prazosin (13.5 percent). Only 18.3 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension were prescribed with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and 0.3 percent with angiotensin receptor blockers. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and microalbuminuria, only 14.1 percent of them were prescribed with ACE inhibitors.
Conclusion A significant proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had associated hypertension but they were not managed optimally according to guidelines. More intensive management of hypertension among patients with diabetes is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality at primary healthcare level.
Keywords: clinical practice guidelines, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, primary healthcare
Singapore Med J 2005; 46(3): 127-131