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Das RN, Chandrashekhar TS, Joshi HS, Gurung M, Shrestha N, Shivananda PG
Correspondence: Dr T S Chandrashekhar, email@example.com
Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common nosocomial infection among hospitalised patients. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for UTIs and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. Recent reports have shown increasing resistance to commonly-used antibiotics. We aimed to study the antibiotic resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients.
Methods Three urine samples were collected by the mid-stream "clean catch" method from 1,680 clinically-suspected cases of urinary tract infections from inpatients of various clinical departments during one year. The samples were tested microbiologically by standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested for commonly-used antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer technique according to NCCLS guidelines.
Results Significant bacteriuria was present in 71.7 percent of the samples, 17 percent were sterile, 4.8 percent showed insignificant bacteriuria, and 6.5 percent non-pathogenic bacteriuria. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (59.4 percent), Klebsiella spp (15.7 percent) and Enterococcus faecalis (8.1 percent). The mean susceptibility was high for amikacin (87.2 percent), ciprofloxacin (74.8 percent), ceftazidime (71.5 percent) and gentamicin (70.4 percent) but low for nitrofurantoin (35 percent), cephalexin (49.7 percent) and ampicillin (50.5 percent). Escherichia coli was found to be most susceptible to amikacin (98 percent) followed by gentamicin (87.9 percent), ceftazidime (80.8 percent), norfloxacin (78.4 percent) and cotrimoxazole (77.9 percent).
Conclusion A high isolation rate of pathogens from urine samples of clinically-suspected UTI shows a good correlation between clinical findings and microbiological methods. The antibiotics commonly used in UTIs are less effective. Since the present study was a cross-sectional study, regular monitoring is required to establish reliable information about resistance pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy of patients with nosocomial UTIs.
Keywords: antibiotics, bacteriuria, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection
Singapore Med J 2006; 47(4): 281-285