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Wu AYT, Tan CB, Eng PHK, Tan KT, Lim SC, Tan EK
Correspondence: Dr Akira Y T Wu, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction Microalbuminuria is a marker of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It represents the earliest clinical evidence of diabetic nephropathy. Its early detection allows for implementation of individually-tailored cardiovascular risk reduction management programmes. Despite this, information on the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore is limited.
Methods The Microalbuminuria Prevalence Study (MAPS) assessed the prevalence of macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria in consecutively-screened hypertensive adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in ten Asian countries. This paper presents the results of a sub-analysis of data from patients in Singapore.
Results Singapore contributed seven percent of the overall enrolment into MAPS; a total of 499 patients were enrolled and 388 constituted the per-protocol population (patients with bacteriuria and haematuria were excluded). Overall, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease was high. In our study population, 23.5 percent of patients had macroalbuminuria (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 21.3-25.6), and 48.5 percent of patients had microalbuminuria (95 percent CI 45.9-51.0). Only 28.1 percent (95 percent CI 25.8-30.4) of patients were normoalbuminuric. Associated factors were poor glycaemic control and poor blood pressure control.
Conclusion The high prevalence (72 percent) of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria found in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore is a cause for concern. These findings highlight the need to screen for microalbuminuria and better manage hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, if we are to avoid a major increase in end-stage renal disease.
Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, macroalbuminuria, microalbuminuria
Singapore Med J 2006; 47(4): 315-320