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Ng DK, Hui HN, Chan CH, Kwok KL, Chow PY, Cheung JM, Leung SY
Correspondence: Dr Daniel K Ng, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) for a combination of reasons, including small upper airway, midfacial hypoplasia, micrognathia and muscular hypotonia. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of OSA in DS children, with or without snoring, with snoring children matched for gender, age and weight for height.
Methods DS children were prospectively recruited from the Hong Kong Down Syndrome Association. All recruited DS children underwent a sleep polysomnography (PSG) in our sleep laboratory. The same number of patients without DS who underwent sleep PSG in the same period were enrolled as controls after they were matched for gender, age and weight for height. OSA was defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) greater than 1.5.
Results 22 DS patients and 22 snoring controls completed the overnight PSG. The mean age of DS children and snoring controls was 10.82 +/- 5.93 and 10.27 +/- 5.68 years, respectively. The prevalence of OSA was 59 percent in DS children and 32 percent in snoring controls. Median and interquartile range (IQR) of AHI of DS children (median 1.80, IQR is 0.40 to 7.10) were significantly higher than those of controls (median 0.50, IQR is 0.00 to 2.03, p-value equals 0.041). Out of 13 DS children with OSA, eight of them (61.5 percent) had no habitual snoring.
Conclusion 59 percent of DS children in the current series were found to have OSA and they were more likely to develop OSA than controls. Nearly 40 percent of DS children with OSA did not have habitual snoring.
Keywords: apnoea-hypopnoea index, Down syndrome, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea, polysomnography, snoring
Singapore Med J 2006; 47(9): 774-779