SMJ welcomes quality manuscript submissions from both Singapore and overseas authors. To facilitate a smooth publication process, authors who are considering submitting their manuscripts to SMJ are strongly encouraged to read the following guidelines.


To submit a manuscript, please go to

If you do not have an SMJ author account on the Editorial Manager, create an account and log in with your username and password. We recommend using a non-institutional email so that you will receive automated updates from the Editorial Manager website. Before uploading your manuscript onto the Editorial Manager, ensure you have all the documents described in the manuscript preparation section.

A one-time, non-refundable Submission Fee of SGD 100 is required upon submission. The Submission Fee helps cover part of the administrative and system costs involved in peer review. Payment of the Submission Fee does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript. Details regarding mode of payment, waiver and refund policy can be found here.

When the Submission Fee has been successfully processed and the submission meets the initial screening, a tracking number will be emailed to the authors, who will be able to track the status of their manuscript online.

All material submitted for publication is assumed to be submitted exclusively to the SMJ unless stated otherwise.



Each person designated as an author should have participated sufficiently in the work to justify authorship. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends that authorship be based on the following four criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

During manuscript submission, the corresponding author will be asked to provide the co-authors’ email addresses (for verification of participation) and contributor roles (e.g. conceptualisation, data curation, validation, etc).

Non-author contributors

Contributors who do not meet all the above four criteria should be acknowledged and their contributions specified in the Acknowledgement section. Examples of activities alone (without other contributions) that do not qualify a contributor for authorship include: acquisition of funding; general supervision of a research group; provision of IT or general administrative support; writing assistance, technical or language editing and proofreading.

As acknowledgement may imply endorsement by acknowledged individuals of a study’s data and conclusions, the corresponding author should obtain permission from these individuals before including them in the Acknowledgement section of the manuscript.


Initial Assessments

Submitted manuscripts undergo two initial screenings:

  1. Editorial Assessment: All submitted manuscripts are initially reviewed by the Editors. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or methodological flaws, or a subject matter that is too specialised or of limited interest to a general medical audience, are promptly rejected without additional peer review. This avoids any delays from the peer review process, and gives authors the opportunity to submit the manuscript to another journal of their interest.
  2. Technical Check: The editorial office screens manuscripts that have passed the Editorial Assessment screen for format, language and grammar, plagiarism, and other technical aspects. Manuscripts that do not pass this check may be returned to the author for rectification, or rejected without peer review.

    Anti-plagiarism Policy: Plagiarism includes duplicate publication of the authors’ own work, in whole or in part without proper citation or mispresenting others’ ideas, words, and other creative expression as one’s own. The Journal follows a strict anti-plagiarism policy. All manuscripts submitted to the SMJ undergoes plagiarism check with commercially available software. Based on the extent of plagiarism, authors may be asked to address any minor duplication, or similarity with previous published works. If plagiarism is detected after publication, the Journal will investigate. If plagiarism is established, the journal will notify the authors’ institution and funding bodies and will retract the plagiarised article. Plagiarism can be reported to the journal office at

Peer Review

Manuscripts that pass the above initial screenings are issued a manuscript tracking number and assigned to Specialty Editors, who will send the manuscript for external peer review by (usually) two or more reviewers, and a decision on the manuscript will be made based on comments from the reviewers, and in specific instances other factors as deemed appropriate by the Editorial Board. The final decision about publication is made by the Editor-in-Chief, or a Deputy Editor if the Editor-in-Chief is an author on the manuscript.

During submission, the submitting author is requested to provide the names of up to three qualified reviewers who have had experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but this is not mandatory. As far as is practically possible, the suggested reviewers should not be affiliated with the same institutions as the contributors. Ultimately, the selection of these reviewers will be at the sole discretion of the Editorial Board.

The journal follows a double-blind review process, i.e. the reviewers and authors are blinded to each other’s identity. The comments received from reviewers are usually, but not always, communicated to the corresponding author. The final decision to accept, reject or revise the manuscript will be made by the Editorial Board and the Editor-in-Chief.

Accepted manuscripts

Manuscripts accepted for publication are copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style and format. Authors are strongly encouraged to use clear and good English to keep the time required for copy editing to the minimum. Time to publication could be affected if extra time is required for copy editing. Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking of factual accuracy, and to respond to queries that may have arisen during the editing process. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within seven days. No further corrections are usually possible once the page proof has been returned to us.

To facilitate rapid publication and dissemination of knowledge, the Journal publishes most articles online ‘Ahead of Print’ immediately on acceptance.


An invitation to revise a manuscript does not mean that it will be accepted for publication, but presents an opportunity for the author to improve on the existing work for a decision regarding its suitability for publication. The author is requested to submit a point-by-point response to the reviewers’ comments along with their revised manuscript. While authors are not obliged to address all the recommendations of the reviewers, they must, however, justify their stance in their response letter.

Processes for appeals

The authors have the right to appeal if they have a genuine cause to believe that the Editorial Board has wrongly rejected the paper. If the authors wish to appeal the decision, they should email the editorial office at, explaining in detail the reason(s) for the appeal. The appeals will be acknowledged by the editorial office and investigated in an unbiased manner. The processing of appeals will be done within 8 weeks. While under appeal, the said manuscript should not be submitted to other journals. The final decision rests with the Editor-in-Chief of the journal, and no further appeal will be accepted for consideration.


The journal policy is generally to publish the articles chronologically according to the acceptance dates. Each accepted manuscript will be formatted in accordance with the journal style. The Editor retains the right to determine the style, and if necessary, edit and shorten any material accepted for publication.

When the galley proof is ready, the Editorial Office will send the proof to authors to check for its completeness. Confirmation or comments from the authors must be given within 48 hours of receipt of the proof, in order to avoid delays in publication of the manuscript. Authors should note that major alterations to the text will not be entertained at this stage and they are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the Editorial team and authorised by the corresponding author.

Do note that the Journal does not publish manuscripts without the author's approval of the galley proof and a completed Contributors' Form. For this reason, it is vital that a working email address and fax number are provided to the Journal office. Once the author gives approval for publication, the Editorial Office will not be held responsible for any mistakes thereafter. 

Note that with effect from June 2012, the editorial office has stopped sending a complimentary copy of the journal to overseas authors in view of the rising cost of international postage. Instead the corresponding authors of all manuscripts published in the SMJ will receive a high-resolution soft copy of the article upon publication. 

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The SMJ Supplement is a compilation of articles that deal with a related issue or topic, and is published as a separate issue of the Journal and funded by sources other than the Journal's publisher. The SMJ Supplement is an effective means of disseminating scientific findings and conference material to the relevant target audience and providing translation of research findings. For more information on publishing a supplement, please contact Ms Li Li Loy/Mr Allan Kuek at or +65 6540 9174.

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For all submissions, begin each section on a new page and number the pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Use Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spaced throughout. Do not insert any headers, footers or footnotes

The following documents are required for each submission, in this order:

  1. Title Page
  2. Manuscript (anonymised version)
  3. Manuscript (non-anonymised version)
  4. Tables (if any)
  5. Figures (or illustrations) (if any)
  6. Contributors' Form (signed by all the authors)

To preserve the anonymity of patients and other participants, all potentially identifying information must be removed from images, charts, graphs, tables and text before the manuscript is submitted to the Editorial Office.

In the manuscript, each of the following sections should begin on a new page:

  1. Abstract and Keywords
  2. Text
  3. Acknowledgements (if any)
  4. References
  5. Figure legends

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Title Page

The title page should be an individual document, uploaded separately, that provides:

  • the title of the article, which should be concise and informative;
  • the full name of all authors; indicate in parenthesis the family/last name and initials, e.g. James Taylor SMITH [Smith JT]. Romanise names in Cyrillic (Russian, Bulgarian, etc.), Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, or character-based languages, such as Chinese and Japanese.
  • the designations/appointments (e.g. Registrar, Consultant, Professor) of all authors;
  • a maximum of two academic degrees (e.g. MBBS, PhD) of each author;
  • the full address of all authors’ institutions, including postal/zip code;
  • the departments of all the authors;
  • a working telephone number (preferably of the corresponding author’s institution/clinic), including the country code;
  • a working fax number (preferably of the corresponding author’s institution/clinic), including the country code;
  • an email address that the author checks regularly, so that all correspondences will be received.

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Manuscript (2 different copies)

Your submission should consist of versions of your manuscript – 1 anonymised and 1 non-anonymised.

Anonymised version – this version should not contain any information that may identify the authors and their respective institutions. This includes the explicit mention of persons and institutions. The Title page and Acknowledgement section should not be included in this version.

Non-anonymised version – this version should include the title page. Explicit mention of information that may identify the authors and their respective institutions is permitted. This version of the manuscript will be the one used in preparation for print, if it is accepted for publication.

When revising your manuscript, please submit 2 copies (one clean copy and one annotated blinded copy) of the revised submission. In the annotated blinded copy, indicate all changes made by underlining/highlighting the amended portions and describe which reviewer comment you are responding to in the margins of the manuscript. 

Abstract and Keywords

The Abstract should be an informative synopsis/summary of your manuscript. There are 2 kinds of abstracts: Unstructured and Structured.

Structured – Organise the abstract according to the following headings:

  1. Introduction – states the purposes/aims of the study/investigation
  2. Methods – describes the selection of study subjects/experimental animals, observational and analytical methods
  3. Results – provides specific data and its statistical significance, if possible
  4. Conclusion – succinct emphasis of new and important aspects of the study or observations

No additional subheadings are required. The word count should not exceed 250 words.

Unstructured – There is no need to divide the abstract into different sections, unlike the Structured abstract. The word count should not exceed 150 words.

Below the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords (or short phrases) that will assist in the cross-indexing of the article. These will be published with the abstract.

Tip: check and confirm that the keywords are the most relevant terms found in the title or the Abstract, and are preferably also listed in the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus found in

Important note: An Abstract and Keywords are required on submission for all article categories to facilitate the peer-review process. For the final published version, the Abstract and Keywords are only included in the following article types: Original Article; Systematic Review/Meta-analysis; and Review Article.

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Main Text

  • Text should be set in font Times New Roman, size 12 with double-line spacing. 
  • Add line numbers in the margin alongside each line of the document.
  • References must be cited in sequential order in the text, i.e. Reference #2 must appear before Reference #4.
  • In-text citations should be in superscript and placed after the punctuation, e.g. Five patients were selected.(15,17)
  • Groups of sequential endnotes (e.g. 1,2,3,4) should be elided with a hyphen (e.g. 1–4).
  • Groups of two sequential endnotes or of non-sequential endnotes should be separated with commas and no space (e.g. 5,6).
  • Add product citations in the form (Company, City, State, Country) or (Model no./Product type; Company, City, State, Country).


  • Abbreviate "Figure" as "Fig.", e.g. Fig. 1, Fig. 2.
  • Number figures consecutively in Arabic numerals (e.g. Fig. 1, Fig. 2) in order of their first citation in the text.
  • Submit images as TIFF/JPEG files with a minimum resolution of 300 DPI and minimum dimension of 1,000 × 1,000 pixels. Colour images should be submitted in CYMK format, instead of RGB format.
  • Graphs and charts that are created with Microsoft Word/Excel/Powerpoint should be submitted in editable format (i.e. paste them into a Word document with raw data embedded), not as image files.
  • Graphs and charts that are not in an editable format should be submitted in greyscale if possible.
  • Line graphs should be formatted as follows: major tick marks, axis labels with units, no gridlines.
  • Flowcharts should be formatted as follows: Arial font, white square boxes with black borders, no shadows.
  • For imaging (e.g. CT and MR images), where possible, use arrows to point to a feature and explain it in the figure caption.
  • For drawings and graphs, state the most important points leading to the desired conclusion.
  • A separate file should be submitted for each Figure or Figure part, e.g. Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b should be uploaded as two files. (Authors are advised to keep backup files of all images.)
  • For line figures, freehand and type-written lettering are not acceptable.
  • Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and even throughout, and of sufficient size so that when they are reduced in size for publication, each item will still be clearly identifiable.
  • If a Figure has been previously published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material.
  • Authors’ names and affiliations should not appear on the images.
  • All Figures/Figure-parts relating to one patient should have the same Figure number.
  • Symbols, arrows or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background.

Provide appropriate descriptions for every figure/figure-part provided. Include the type of image (e.g. axial CT image, contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-W MR image) and succinctly point out what the reader should note from each image. Identify the method of staining and original magnification (e.g. Haemotoxylin & eosin, × 100), where appropriate, e.g. Transverse US image shows an effusion.

With effect from January 2020, all images in the hard copy edition of the SMJ will be printed in black and white by default. For images to be printed in colour, a payment of SGD 65 per colour page is required. Note that the soft copy PDF and online versions will still be in colour.

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Submit all tables either in (a) Microsoft Word or (b) Microsoft Excel format only. 

  • Number the tables consecutively using Roman numerals (e.g. Table I, Table II, Table III) in the order of their first citation in the text.
  • Provide a brief title, which should be shown at the top of each table.
  • Place table explanations in the footnotes of the table.
  • Explain all non-standard abbreviations in the footnotes to the tables.
  • Use footnote symbols in this order: asterisk (*), dagger (†), double dagger (‡), section symbol (§), paragraph (¶).
  • Identify statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation (SD) and standard error of the mean (SED), expressing SD in the format “mean ± SD”.
  • Use the same number of decimal places for values of the same type, e.g. present all percentages in 1 decimal place. For values with arms such as mean ± SD, ensure that both arms have the same number of decimal places.
  • Obtain permission for publication before submission of the manuscript and acknowledge fully if data from another published source is used.

Do not:

  • Use too many tables in relation to the length of the text.
  • Have small tables (less than 3 × 3) that can be expressed in the article text.

Abbreviations and Symbols

  • The full term for which an abbreviation or acronym stands should precede its first use unless it is a standard unit of measurement.
  • In general, symbols and abbreviations should be those used by British Chemical and Physiological Abstracts.
  • Weights, volumes, etc. should be denoted in metric units.
  • The use of SI Units (International System of Units) is encouraged.

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The Vancouver style of referencing is adopted by the Journal. The detailed style of the different types of citations can be found here.

It is the authors’ responsibility to check all references very carefully for accuracy and completeness. Authors should avoid using abstracts as references. “Unpublished observations” and “personal communications” may not be used as references; if cited, a letter (from the person quoted) granting permission must be submitted. Subject to editorial approval, the person quoted will be cited in parentheses in the text and not in the reference section.


State contributions that need to be acknowledged, but do not justify authorship. Acknowledgeable contributions include (not in exhaustive order) general support by a Department Head or Chairman, technical help, and financial and/or material support (including grants). Mention conflicts of interest, if any.

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The format for the text varies depending on the type of article. The list of article types and their respective formats are as follows:
Original ArticleReview Article, EditorialCommentary, Pictorial Essay, Medical Education, Short Communication, and Letter to the Editor. Medical Education and Pictorial Essay articles are typically Continuing Medical Education (CME) articles.

Original Article

An original article is a research report on the clinical objectives and analytical process, as well as discussion on the implications of the results of a study. It should consist of a Structured Abstract (≤ 250 words) and Keywords (≤ 5), and text organised according to the IMRaD format:

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References

Review Article

Narrative review
A narrative review is usually an invited article written by an expert, providing a critical analysis and recent information on a given specialty. Unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the editor (email: before submission.
A narrative review should be no more than 4,000 words, with an adequate number of references to support the discussion. It should consist of an Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5), and text organised according to the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Relevant section headings of the author’s choosing
  • Conclusion
  • References

Systematic review/meta-analysis
A systematic review or meta-analysis should be no more than 4,000 words. References should comprise all studies included in the analysis, as well as others that are relevant to support the discussion. The article title should accurately reflect the topic under review (e.g. Corticosteroid injection for adhesive capsulitis in primary care: a systematic review). The article should consist of a Structured Abstract (≤ 250 words) and Keywords (≤ 5), and text organised according to the IMRaD format:

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References

Authors are strongly encouraged to use the following checklists (where applicable):

Pictorial Essay

This is a teaching exercise with the message in the figures and their legends. The emphasis is on the quality of imaging features and the utility of the message. Text should be organised according to the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Section headers of the author’s choosing
  • References

Pictorial essays should not exceed 2,000 words, with 20 figures or 30 figure-parts, and should contain no more than 15 references.

An Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5) are required during submission to facilitate the peer-review process. Abstract and keywords are not included in the final published article.


An editorial is an authoritative commentary on topics of current interest or that relate to articles published in the same issue. Editorials may be about any important topic related to medicine, health or health policy. An editorial is usually commissioned; unsolicited editorials should be discussed with the editor (email: before submission. Editorials should be about 800 words long with references limited to only those that support the discussion.

An Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5) are required during submission to facilitate the peer-review process. Abstract and keywords are not included in the final published article.


A commentary is a short article describing an author’s personal experience of a specific topic, or accompanying an original article in the same issue. It should outline the various viewpoints that exist. A commentary is usually commissioned; unsolicited commentaries should be discussed with the editor (email: before submission. Text should be organised according to the following headings:

  • Introduction
  • Relevant section headings of the author's choice
  • References

Commentaries should be about 1,000-1,500 words, with no more than 2 figures/tables. References should be limited to only those that support the argument.

An Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5) are required during submission to facilitate the peer-review process. Abstract and keywords are not included in the final published article.

Medical Education 

Clinics in Diagnostic Imaging
These are short case studies reporting relatively rare but well-recognised radiological abnormalities, or having radiological images of educational value. The illustrative material should be of interest to general clinicians and trainees in various specialties. There should be a maximum of 4 authors. Text should be organised according to the following headings:

  • Case Presentation
  • Image Interpretation
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Course
  • Discussion
  • References

The first page should contain no more than 1,000 words, deducting 250 words for each figure included. The Case Presentation, comprising the relevant history, physical findings and/or laboratory data, together with one to three figures and questions relating to the clinical problem, will appear on the right-hand page in print. The initial figures should be radiological images, although a clinical photograph may be substituted for a radiological image, where relevant. [Click here for sample of first page.]

The consecutive pages will contain the description and interpretation of the initial figures under the headings of Imaging Interpretation, Diagnosis and Clinical Course. The patient’s Clinical Course and final outcome should be described briefly and, where appropriate, illustrated with supplementary radiological images, surgical photographs or histological photomicrographs. The Discussion should be concise and provide an up-to-date review of the subject, with emphasis placed on the role of imaging, with additional radiological illustrations. There should not be more than 15 References.


Electrocardiography Case (ECG Case)
These are short, instructive case studies reporting on the ECGs of patients presenting with symptoms relating to the heart. The illustrative material should help general clinicians and trainees in the various specialties to interpret the ECG diagrams and to know what to look out for in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Text should be organised according to the following headings:

  • Clinical Presentation
  • ECG Interpretation
  • Clinical Course
  • Discussion
  • References

There should be no more than 15 references and a maximum of 4 authors.

Practice Integration & Lifelong Learning Series (PILL Series)
This is a short, instructive case study (five-minute read) that aims to educate general practitioners in Singapore. Writing teams should comprise at least 1 family physician based in Singapore and relevant specialists/nurse practitioners/allied health professionals.

The article begins by describing a typical primary care consultation. It introduces the disease entity, then gives key pointers on patient management, important updates and supporting evidence behind the practices. Information is repeated throughout the article to drive home the points for the reader. Text is organised as follows:

  • Case Vignette
  • Section headers of the author’s choosing 
  • Take Home Messages
  • Closing Vignette
  • References
  • CME questions

There should be no more than 15 references and a maximum of 4 authors. 

For more information on writing and formatting PILL articles, please see this guide.

Note: PILL articles are currently invited articles. To propose a topic and a writing team (typically comprising at least 1 family physician and relevant specialists/nurse practitioners/allied health professionals), email the editor at PILL articles are submitted under the Medical Education category.

Problem-solving for Acute and Critical Care

A Problem-solving for Acute and Critical Care (PACC) article is a concise and instructive case study (10-minute read) that aims to educate frontline clinicians dealing with acute or critical care problems. The article begins by describing a case vignette, which may occur in various frontline settings like the clinic, emergency department and general ward. The article then introduces the problem, provides general concepts and specific applications, highlights relevant evidence-based medicine and guidelines, and includes a central diagram to highlight key diagnostic or management points. Text is organised as follows:

  • Case vignette
  • Section headers of the author’s choosing 
  • Take home messages
  • Central diagram
  • Closing vignette
  • References
  • CME questions

There should be no more than 20 references and a maximum of 4 authors. Writing teams should comprise at least 1 critical care physician based in Singapore and relevant specialists/nurse practitioners/allied health professionals. 

Note: PACC articles are currently invited articles. To propose a topic, please write to

For all manuscripts submitted for Medical Education:

  • An Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5) are required during submission to facilitate the peer-review process. Abstract and keywords are not included in the final published article.
  • There should be no more than 4 authors. If the number of authors exceeds the limit, the contribution(s) of each author should be justified according to the ICMJE criteria on authorship. Decision to extend the author numbers is at the discretion of the Editor.

Short Communication

Short Communications present brief observations or original research that do not warrant a full-length paper. They are submitted the same way and undergo the same review process as full-length papers, and do not receive prioritised or rapid publication.

  • Total length should not exceed 2,500 words, including illustrative material (in total no more than 3 figures and tables).
  • References should be limited to only those that support the discussion.
  • Articles focusing on original research are formatted with the following headers in the body of the text: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.
  • Supplementary information (e.g. additional figures, questionnaires, datasets) may be published online at the discretion of the Editor.

Note: The Short Communication article category is not for open submission. Decision to publish a submitted manuscript as a short communication is at the sole discretion of the Editor. Abstract and Keywords are not included in the final published article.

Letter to the Editor

Letters to the Editor should either offer objective and constructive criticism of published articles, or discuss matters of general scientific or medical interest to readers of SMJ. This is also a forum for authors to publish concise articles such as reports of novel cases.
Note: Standard formal letter format is recommended.

Comments on SMJ published articles/authors' reply

  • 250 words (main text only)
  • 1 small table or figure (optional)
  • Up to 5 references
  • Comments may be submitted via email to
  • Abstracts and keywords are not required during submission.

Discussion on new topics/novel cases

  • 450 words (main text only)
  • 1–2 small tables or figures (optional)
  • Up to 5 references
  • Letters reporting novel cases may exceed these limits at the discretion of the editor
  • An Unstructured Abstract (≤ 150 words) and Keywords (≤ 5) are required during submission to facilitate the peer-review process. Abstract and keywords are not included in the final published article.


Continuing Medical Education (CME)

Accepted articles that are deemed to be especially educational will be chosen by the Editor to participate in the CME programme organised by the Singapore Medical Council (SMC). Upon acceptance of selected articles, the authors will be requested to provide 5 four-stem multiple-choice questions (MCQs) with true/false answers based solely on the contents of the article. The format of the MCQs may vary for some articles, subject to the Editor's approval.

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SMJ is an English language journal. The use of British English is strongly encouraged. The Editorial Office does not offer major copyediting services; therefore, it is the author's responsibility to ensure that the English language is thoroughly revised before submitting the work for publication. Note that the Editorial Office reserves the right to reject a manuscript if the use of language is deemed too poor.

Authors whose native language is not English are strongly encouraged to seek assistance from a competent linguist who is familiar with medical terminology in order to ensure that the words used convey the intended meaning both accurately and clearly.  

Recommended English editing service
You may use the coupon code ‘SMJ’ to get a 10% discount for manuscript editing.


Please be advised that all manuscripts submitted to the Journal will be screened for plagiarism using CrossCheck powered by iThenticate. 

The Editorial Office has encountered cases where authors have copied entire paragraphs from previously published articles. Although these passages were duly cited and credited with reference sources derived from the articles, this has been found to be unacceptable by Journal standards. Authors are required to paraphrase all reference citations in their own words. This is necessary to prevent any future misunderstandings regarding plagiarism.

In the rare case where a certain citation would lose its original meaning and essence if paraphrasing is attempted, the Journal requires authors to enclose the citation in quotation marks (“ ”) to indicate that it is a direct quote from the source. However, excessive usage of such quotation marks is discouraged and should be utilised only when absolutely necessary. 

In order to stem out this unethical practice of plagiarism, the Journal adopts a zero-tolerance stance toward wholesale copying of published works. Failure to comply with these instructions will result in the outright rejection of manuscripts without peer review.

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This is meant to be a platform/starting point from which the readers will delve into the work being presented in the text.

  • State the purpose of the article.
  • Summarise the rationale for the study or observation.
  • Provide only strictly pertinent information and references.


  •  Review the subject extensively.
  •  Include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

Describe precisely your selection of the observational/experimental subjects (patients, participants or laboratory animals, including controls). Identify the following in sufficient detail, so that there is enough information to reproduce the method presented in the study: 

  • Methods
  • Procedures
  • Apparatus. Please list the manufacturer, city, state and country of all generic drugs, equipment and software used in parenthesis. e.g. KnifeLight® instrument (Stryker Iinstruments, Kalamazoo, MI, USA).
  • All drugs and chemicals used. Please list their generic names, manufacturer’s name, city and country in parenthesis, e.g. (Zoloft, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA), and their exact doses and routes of administration.
  • Statistical methods should also be described in this section. There should be enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader to verify the reported results.
  • Where possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals [CI]).
  • Avoid relying only on statistical hypothetical testing, such as the use of p-values, which fail to communicate important quantitative information.
  • Discuss the eligibility of experimental subjects.
  • Provide details about randomisation.
  • Describe the methods for, and success by, blinding of observations.
  • Report treatment complications.
  • Report losses to observation (e.g. dropouts from a clinical trial).

Please cite the standard source (this could be a manual, textbook, or the like), with page numbers stated in the References section, for the study design and statistical methods, instead of citing it directly from the article.

Specify any general-use computer programmes used (e.g. SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Avoid the non-technical use of technical terms in statistics; words like "random", "significant", "correlations" and "sample" should not be used unintentionally. Define statistical terms, abbreviations and symbols.


  • Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, Figures (if available) and Tables (if available).
  • Use Graphs as an alternative to Tables, if the Tables require too many columns/rows.
  • Present the results of your statistical study/analysis.
  • Emphasise or summarise only the important observations.


  • Repeat all the data found in the Figures and Tables in this section.

In this section, emphasise the new and important aspects of the study, and the conclusions that follow from them.

  • Include the implications of the findings and their limitations, including the implications for future research.
  • For new or substantially modified methods, please also adequately evaluate their limitations.
  • Relate the observations to other relevant studies, and cite their reference sources. [e.g. A study in 2000 done by Lin et al also supports this conclusion.(1)]
  • Link the conclusions with the goals of the study.
  • State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such.
  • Include recommendations when appropriate.


  • Repeat in detail, the data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section.
  • Make statements or draw conclusions that are not completely supported by your data.
  • Claim priority and allude to work that has not been completed.

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Singapore Medical Journal
Singapore Medical Association
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Singapore 159457
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