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Owolabi AT, Dare FO, Fasubaa OB, Ogunlola IO, Kuti O, Bisiriyu LA
Correspondence: Dr Alexander Tuesday Owolabi, email@example.com
Introduction This study aimed to determine the incidence of, and identify independent risk factors to retained placenta in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria.
Methods This was a prospective case-control study involving 120 women with retained placenta after vaginal birth at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria over a period of seven years. Two consecutive normal deliveries after each retained placenta served as controls. Following a bivariate analysis, a multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to define independent risk factors for retained placenta while controlling for confounding variables.
Results During the study period, there were 120 cases of retained placenta, and the total number of deliveries was 6,160, making the incidence 1.9 percent. Independent risk factors associated with retained placenta include non-use of antenatal care (odds-ratio [OR] 22.71, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 10.5-49.12, p-value is less than 0.000), previous retained placenta (OR 15.22, 95 percent CI 3.30-70.19, p-value is less than 0.000), previous caesarean section (OR 12.00, 95 percent CI 2.05-70.19, p-value is less than 0.006), maternal age 35 years or more (OR 7.10, 95 percent CI 1.5-32.40, p-values is less than 0.012), grand multiparity (OR 6.63, 95 percent CI 1.88-23.40, p-value is less than 0.003), previous dilatation and curettage (OR 4.44, 95 percent CI 1.69-11.63, p-value is less than 0.002), preterm delivery (OR 3.12, 95 percent CI 1.12-8.68, p-value is less than 0.029) and placenta weight less than 501 g (OR 2.91, 95 percent CI 1.34-6.32, p-value is less than 0.007).
Conclusion Women with identifiable risk factors should be targeted for the prevention of retained placenta. There is a need for the training of birth attendants in the proper conduct of delivery and third stage of labour to prevent placenta retention and postpartum haemorrhage.
Keywords: grand multiparity, previous caesarean section, previous retained placenta, retained placenta
Singapore Med J 2008; 49(7): 532-537