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Chan SH, Tan PTN, Han HH, Bock HL
Correspondence: Dr Hans L Bock, email@example.com
Introduction Older children and adults, susceptible to pertussis because of waning immunity, may serve as a reservoir of infection, leading to severe disease among young unvaccinated infants. Booster diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccination in older age groups is rare in Singapore, one reason being the increase in reactogenicity with each successive dose. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a reduced antigen, combined dTpa vaccine as a single booster dose in healthy adults aged 18 years or older.
Methods A total of 150 healthy adults, 18 to 60 years of age, received a single dose of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' dTpa vaccine with reduced content for diphtheria and pertussis, with measurement of pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres.
Results Prior to vaccination, 71.6 percent and 92.6 percent of the subjects had anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibody levels greater than or equal to 0.1 IU/mL, respectively. 46.7 percent, 98.5 percent and 44.4 percent of subjects were seropositive for pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) antibodies, respectively. One month after vaccination, there was an increase in geometric mean titres from pre-vaccination to post-vaccination blood samples for anti-diphtheria (greater than seven-fold), anti-tetanus (greater than five-fold), anti-PT (greater than 11-fold), anti- FHA (greater than 25-fold) and anti-PRN (greater than 31-fold) antibodies. Solicited grade three local symptoms (pain, redness and swelling) were reported in 14.1 percent, 8.1 percent and 10.4 percent of subjects, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported.
Conclusion In summary, the dTpa vaccine is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in Singaporean adults.
Keywords: diphtheria, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines, immunisation, pertussis, tetanus, whooping cough
Singapore Med J 2006; 47(4): 286-290